All you need to know about JSON Web Tokens(JWT) — Part 2/2

In the first part of this JWT blog, I talked about what JSON Web Tokens are, how they work and when to use them. If you haven’t checked that out, I’d recommend you to go through Part 1 first. In this part, I’ll be talking about the structure of JWT and how a server can verify and issue JWT token in Javascript.

JWT Structure

Every JWT has the same structure. There are three parts separated by a period: Header, Payload, Signature. Each section is composed of base64url-encoded JSON containing specific information for that token. Simply put, a JWT is just a string with the following format:

const jwtToken = base64urlEncoding(header) + ‘.’ + base64urlEncoding(payload) + ‘.’ + base64urlEncoding(signature)
Sample JWT


Header is used to identify the type of token and which algorithm is used to generate the signature. Here, HS256 indicates that this token is signed using HMAC-SHA256. Typical cryptographic algorithms used are HMAC with SHA-256 (HS256) and RSA signature with SHA-256 (RS256). JWA (JSON Web Algorithms) RFC 7518 introduces many more for both authentication and encryption.

“algorithm” : “HS256”,
“type” : “JWT”


Payload contains a set of claims about the user and metadata. There are three types of claims: reserved, public, and private claims.

  1. Reserved claims: universally predefined claims like issuer, expiration time, subject, audience etc.
  2. Public claims: unique as no two public claims can be same, to avoid collisions they are usually defined in the IANA JSON Web Token Registry.
  3. Private claims: custom claims agreed upon by both parties using them.
“loginRole” : “admin”,
“exp” : 1422654638


JSON Web Signature (JWS) securely validates the user and checks if the message wasn’t changed. The final token string is placed under a cryptographic algorithm specified in the header, in this case HMAC-SHA256.

base64urlEncoding(header) + ‘.’ +

Verify & Issue JWT

For this section, I will create a JWT token and save it in session cookie in Javascript. Install the jsonwebtoken and the cookie library for the same. Tokens can also be generated independent of cookies.

$ npm install jsonwebtoken
$ npm install cookie

To use this library, use require statements:

const jwt = require(“jsonwebtoken”);
const cookie = require(‘cookie’);

Now to see cookies that have been set and verify JWT session in this cookie, use following code:

const getCookies = function(event) {if(event.headers && (event.headers.cookie || event.headers.Cookie)) {
return cookie.parse(event.headers.cookie || event.headers.Cookie);
return {}
}const verifySession = function(event) {var token = getCookies(event)[CookieName]
return jwt.verify(token, key);
return false;

To generate JWT token cookie, use following code:

const generateTokenCookie = function(event, response) {response.headers = response.headers || {};
var sessionCookies = getCookies(event)[CookieName];
if(!sessionCookies) {
var payload = {userId: event.headers[‘X-FORWARDED-USER’]};
var token = jwt.sign(payload, key, {expiresIn: 24 + ‘h’});
var date = new Date();
date.setTime(date.getTime() + (24 * 60 * 1000););
var jwtCookie = cookie.serialize(CookieName, token, {
path: “/”,
expires: date,
httpOnly: true,
secure: true
response.headers[“setCookie”] = jwtCookie;

I hope this two-part blog explains JSON Web Token (JWT) and how it is a powerful tool for confidently transmitting data between two parties through tokens.

Thank you for reading! If you found this helpful, here are some next steps you can take:

  1. Check out Part 1 of this blog!
  2. Send some claps my way!
  3. Follow me on Medium and connect with me on LinkedIn!
  4. Check out! This is a specialized website about JWT with tools and documentation, maintained by Auth0.
  5. Use JSON Validator to validate JSON Web Token



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Kanika Modi

Software Engineer @amazon | Designing Systems At Scale | Tech & Career Blogs | She/Her | ViewsMine()